# Statistics for Economics – Introduction

## (Chapter 1, Class XI, NCERT/CBSE)

Imagine you and your friends are playing a game, and you all want to buy different toys with your pocket money. Economics is like a game, but it’s about how people make choices in real life when they want to buy things or make things to sell.

In economics, there are different roles for people:

1.   Consumers: These are the people, like you, who buy things to satisfy their needs or to give as gifts to others.

2.   Sellers: These are the people, like shopkeepers, who sell things to make a profit for themselves.

3.   Producers: These are the people who make things, like farmers who grow crops or companies that manufacture goods. They can also be people who provide services, like doctors, taxi drivers, or delivery workers.

4.   Employees: When you work for someone else and get paid for it, you become an employee.

5.   Employers: When you hire and pay someone to work for you, you become an employer.

Now, in the game of economics, there’s a key challenge called “scarcity.” It means that the things we want are limited, but our wants are endless. For example, there might be only a few seats left for a popular movie, and everyone wants to get one. That’s scarcity in action.

Because of scarcity, we have to make choices. Imagine you have limited pocket money, and there are so many toys you want to buy. You have to decide which toys you want the most because you can’t buy everything.

Economics is divided into three parts:

1.   Consumption: This is about how people like you decide what to buy, considering your income and the prices of things available in the market.

2.   Production: This is about how producers decide what to make and how to make it, based on what people want to buy.

3.   Distribution: This is about how the money earned from selling goods or providing services is divided among different people, like workers getting wages, and companies making profits.

Economists use a tool called “statistics” to help them study and understand economic facts better. Statistics is like using numbers to figure out what’s happening in the economy, like how much money people are spending or how many things are being made. Economics is all about how people make choices to use their limited resources to produce and buy things they need or want. It’s like a game where you have to be smart about what you choose, given the limited options you have.

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